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Archive for April, 2006

Everyone has a bad day, but a bad century? Will our long national nightmare never end?

April 29th, 2006 1 comment

Cubs_loseCubs:2
Brewers: 16

But…it could have been worse.

Twins: 1
Tigers: 18

(of course these are American League teams where they use the wimpy designated hitter rule, which means it isn’t real baseball)

Categories: Uncategorized

Teamwork

April 29th, 2006 Comments off

Teamwork_1

A few harmless flakes working together can unleash an avalanche of destruction.

Categories: Uncategorized

Wishes

April 29th, 2006 Comments off

Wishes_1
When you wish upon a falling star, your dreams can come true. Unless
it’s really a meteorite hurtling to the Earth which will destroy all
life. Then you’re pretty much hosed no matter what you wish for. Unless
it’s death by meteor.

Categories: Uncategorized

Romanizing Ordination Rite?

April 28th, 2006 7 comments

ApostleshipI’m getting really tired of reading the accusation that those who ascribe to what Scripture and the Confessions have to say about the office of the holy ministry are "Romanizing." Have we all suddenly come down with collective amnesia? How quickly have we forgotten what the Sixth Chief Part of the Catechism teaches and what Augustana V, XIV and XXVII have to say about the preaching office. Well, get a load of this "Romanizing" ordination rite that doesn’t say a word about voters’ assemblies, congregation’s calls, the priesthood of all believers or any such thing. In fact, it quotes Matthew 28, John 20 and Ephesians 4 as our Lord’s words of institution for His office of ministry, given as His gift to the Church.

The Service of Ordination

The Ordinator proceeds to the altar with his assistants. Before the steps of the altar stands the Ordinand. At the conclusion of the hymn the Ordinator and his assistants turn to the Ordinand and the former says:

Our Lord Jesus Christ after his resurrection said to his disciples in John 20: Peace be with you! As the Father has sent me, so I am sending you. And when he said this, he breathed on them and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit! To Whom you release the sin, they are released from them and to whom you retain them, they are to them retained.

And subsequently before his ascension he said to them in Matthew 28: To me has all authority been given in heaven and on earth. Therefore, go and teach all people and baptize them in the Name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, and teach them to hold to all that I have mandated to you. And look, I am with you all days until the end of the world.

And after He "had ascended above all heaven, so that he might fill all, he established  some as apostles, some as prophets, some as evangelists, some as pastors and teachers, so that the saints are prepared for the work of the Office, through which the body of Christ is built." (Eph 4:11ff)

Thus the Office that preaches reconciliation is instituted by the Lord Himself, the Office of the Spirit, which makes righteous, living and blessed. And one would not be fit in himself to conduct the office of the New Testament, rather those who are fit are so through God. They are ambassadors in the stead of Christ, God appealing through them, and they bear God’s Office full of boundless charity (2 Cor. 3:5).

Therefore they also should adorn it in all pieces as St. Paul writes to Timothy and Titus. "For a bishop should be irreproachable, a man of one wife, who has believing, obedient children with all respectability, who governs his own house well, (but if someone does not govern his own house blamelessly, how will he care for the congregation of God?), not stubborn, not wrathful, sober, temperate, not a drunkard, not violent, not driven by dishonorable manipulation, modest, chaste, tactful, just, holy, hospitable, kind, not quarrelsome, not covetous, gentle, not a new convert, so that he does not become puffed up and fall into judgement with the deceiver, apt to teach, who holds to the Word, that it is certain and can teach it, so that he is able to exhort with the wholesome doctrine and to strive with those who deny it. He must also have a good reputation before those who are outside, so that he does not fall by the blasphemer into shame and a trap. He should be an example to the believers in word, in walk, in love, in spirit, in faith, in purity. He should attend to reading, exhorting, teaching and not neglect the gift which was given through prophecy with the laying on of hands of the elders. These should he practice, to them be devoted, so that his progress may be apparent in all things. He should pay attention to himself and to his doctrine and endure in these matters. For where he does this, he will make himself blessed and those who hear him.

As then all of these things the same holy apostle in his admonition to the called elders from Ephesus (Acts 20) briefly collects when he says : Take heed over yourselves and over the flock among whom the Holy Spirit has appointed you as bishops, to pasture the congregation of God, which he won through his own blood.

From all these, recognize what a high and holy Office it is, to which you have been called, and what the apostle said is certainly true: He who desires the Office of Bishop, desires a noble work.

At this point the Ordinand kneels.

Therefore I ask you now, beloved brother in the Lord Jesus Christ, before the eyes of God, our Lord Jesus Christ and his holy angels, also before the ears of this congregation, whether you stand prepared after careful reflection, to assume this holy Office, and according to the ability which God bestows, to accomplish and to exercise it for every pleasure of the Lord and Chief Shepherd of the congregation.

Answer:

Yes, I am prepared, after earnest reflection, to assume this holy Office to which God has called me; I pledge and before God and his congregation, according to the ability which God grants, to accomplish and exercise it for every pleasure of the Lord, the Chief Shepherd and Bishop of souls.

The ordaining Pastor further says:

Do you also acknowledge that God’s Word and will, according to which you should conduct your Office, are explained and set forth purely and without adulteration in the three chief symbols of the church, the Apostolic, Nicene and Athanasian, also in the unaltered Augsburg Confession, its Apology, the Smalcald Articles, the two Catechisms of Luther and the Formula of Concord? And do you intend to execute and accomplish your Office according to these confessions of our holy church until your end?

Answer: Yes, I acknowledge the three chief symbols of the church, the unaltered Augsburg Confession and its Apology, the Smalcald Articles, the two Catechisms of Luther and the Formula of Concord as the pure, unadulterated explanation and exposition of the divine Word and will, I confess them as my own confession and intend to execute my Office faithfully and diligently according to them until my end. May God strengthen me for this through his Holy Spirit! Amen.

The ordaining minister thereupon says: Upon this your promise made before God and us, we pray God the Father of our beloved Lord Jesus Christ, the only Lord of the harvest, that He, who called you to His Office, would make you fit for it through His Holy Spirit. May He grant that you give no one offence through which the Office is defamed, rather in all things He shows you as a servant of God, in great endurance, in affliction, in needs, in fears, in beatings, in dangers, in turmoils, in work, in watching, in fasting, in purity, in knowledge, in forbearance, in kindness, in the Holy Spirit, in unfeigned love, in the Word of truth, in the power of God, through weapons of righteousness in the right and the left, through honor and disgrace, through bad reports and good reports, as an imposter and yet true, as a stranger and yet known, as one being killed, and look you live, as one punished and yet not killed, as one who mourns but is always joyful, as one who is poor, but yet makes many rich, as one who possesses nothing and yet has everything (2 Cor. 6). May the Lord grant you thus to bear and to do the work of an evangelical preacher, that you will be able to appear on the great Day before the judgement seat of our Lord Jesus Christ, to give answer to the universal, honorable and just Judge of the living and the dead, to receive praise and honor from his hand and to shine as the brightness of heaven and as the stars forever and eternally!

Then the assistant ministers lay on their hands and each one speaks a biblical blessing.

Then the ordaining pastor says:

We herewith give over to you, through the laying on of our hands the holy Office of the Word and the Sacraments of God, the Triune, ordain and consecrate you as a servant of the holy church in the Name of the Father, and the Son and the Holy Spirit!

The other co-ordaining ministers answer:

Amen. Amen.

Then all the pastors pray together:

Our Father . . . Forever and ever! Amen.

The Ordinator further says:

Let us pray! Merciful God, heavenly Father, you have said to us through themouth of your beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ: "The harvest is great, but the workers are few: pray the Lord of the harvest, that he would send workers into his harvest." Upon this your divine mandate we pray heartily that you would richly bestow your Holy Spirit upon this your servant together with us and all who are called to your Office, so that we with the great company may be your evangelists, remain true and firm against the devil, world and flesh, that your Name may be hallowed, your kingdom increase, and your will brought to completion. Curb also all your enemies, those who defame your Name, destroy your kingdom, and strive against your will, set a goal and an end, and wherever your servants witness and work, promote their witness and the work of their hands to the praise of your all holy Name and to the salvation of souls. Amen.

The Ordinator speaks to the Ordained:

Now go forth and pasture the flock of Christ as you are mandated, and take care that it is not coerced but willing, not for shameful gain but from the depths of the heart, not as one who lords over the people, but be an example to the flock: thus you will receive the unfading crown of honor when the Chief Shepherd appears. The Lord bless you from the highest and establish you as a blessing for many, that you produce much fruit and that your fruit remains to eternal life!

Response of the Ordained: Amen.

Then is sung Luther’s German Te Deum, or "Now Thank We All Our God" after which one begins the Word of Institution of the Holy Supper. The pastors accompany the newly ordained to the table of the Lord.

——————–

If a minister already ordained is entering a new pastorate, the installation can proceed in exactly the same way, only that no conferral of the holy Office in general follows, but after the response to the questions, one of the following prayers is spoken with the laying of hands, followed by: "Now go forth . . ."

——————–

Two Prayers, to use after the response of the preliminary questions

Merciful God, heavenly Father, you have given us fatherly comfort through your holy apostle Paul and have said that it greatly pleases you, O heavenly Lord and Father, through the foolish preaching of the crucified Christ to bless all who believe it: We heartily pray you, that you would bestow your divine grace to this your servant, whom you have called to your holy office of preaching, and would give and impart to him you Holy Spirit. Likewise, strengthen him against every temptation of the devil and make him wise and fit to pasture your precious, purchased sheep with your wholesome and unadulterated Word according to your divine will and pleasure, to the praise and glory of your holy Name, through Jesus Christ! Amen.

2.

O Lord Jesus Christ, eternal Son of God, you sit in the highest at the right hand of your heavenly Father, you give gifts to men upon earth and send pastors and teachers, that the saints would be prepared for the work of the office and your spiritual body be built up: We give you hearty praise, honor and thanks, that you again have sent a pastor to this congregation, and we pray that you would grant to him and to us all your divine grace, that we may do what pleases you, guard faith and a good conscience until the end, and receive eternal blessedness with all the elect. Amen.

Assistant pastors receive the same Ordination as pastors, in this case with reference to the congregation in which they should serve next, and where possible, in their midst.

The new pastor does not preach on the day of ordination or introduction, but his inaugural sermon is on the following Sunday.

* The Order of Ordination for The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod, 1856. From: Kirchen-Agenda fur Evangelisch-lutherische Germeinden ungeandereter Augsburgischer Confession. Zusammengestellt aus den alten rechtgaeubigen Saechsischen Kirchenagenden und herausgegeben von der Allgemeinen deutschen Evangel.-Lutherischen Synode von Missouri, Ohio und anderan Staaten. St. Louis: Der Deutschen Ev.-Luth. Synode v. Missouri, O. u.a. St., 1856.

Translated by William Cwirla
Advent 3, 1992

Categories: Lutheranism

New Feature II: Suscribe to this Blog Via E-Mail and FeedBlitz

April 28th, 2006 Comments off

Feedblitz_logo
Another new feature: See that "Feedblitz" box to your right? Enter your e-mail address and FeedBlitz will send notifications of new posts to this blog site to you, via e-mail. This is one of the many new "Widgets" now standard from TypePad, the program I use to run this blog site. So, if you wish, go ahead and subscribe via e-mail to this blog site.

Categories: Uncategorized

New Feature: Most Recent Comments

April 28th, 2006 Comments off

Bgreisch Take a look over to the right-hand column and you will now see a "most recent comments" listing. It provides you with the…ah…most recent comments offered by you, the readers of this blog site, on any of the posts you choose to talk about. It is a helpful way to keep a discussion going when the post itself has scrolled beyond view on the front page. For instance, the post on worship practices continues to receive comments. I encourage, and welcome, your comments. As always, if you have a question to ask me, please do not put it in a comment, but e-mail it to me. Sometimes I comments, on the comments, sometimes I don’t. Sometimes I have to edit a comment for clarity or for content. Sometimes I don’t post a comment at all, for a variety of reasons. Comments on this blog site are along the lines of a "Letter to the Editor" in a newspaper. Enjoy, and let the commenting continue.
 

Categories: Blogging

When Lutherans Go Goofy

April 28th, 2006 13 comments

Somebody forwarded to me today comments made by a Lutheran pastor concerning the presence of Christ in the Supper. This pastor apparently is very concerned that nothing be said that would in any way prop up the Roman doctrine of “concomitance” — that is the view that it is perfectly acceptable to give the lay people only one kind in the Supper since the whole Christ is present in both the bread and the wine, so one kind is fine. That is typical Roman sophistry, ex post facto, to explain why they deny the cup to laity, or used to. To fend off this error, a Lutheran pastor continues to insist that Jesus is not present under the bread and wine of the Lord’s Supper  only His body and his blood. Goofy? You bet. Ridiculous? Of course.

In other words, according to this pastor, we must speak of Christ in such a way that His body and blood are separated from His person in the Supper. This is rank Christological heresy that one would hope this pastor’s friends, or if necessary, his doctrinal supervisor, would draw to his attention and lead him to repent of. Here is this pastor’s comments:

Where in the Bible is there any indication that Jesus Himself is present in the bread and wine? There is not a shred of biblical evidence that He is present in the bread and wine. Only His body is united with the bread. “Christ is present in the Holy Supper, working not only consolation and life in the believing, but also condemnation in the unbelieving” (F.C. Sol.Dec, VII).; This can only rightly be understood as “Christ is present (in that spiritual mode) in the (use and action of the) Holy Supper, …” which all of us agree with. It certainly does not say Christ is present in the bread and wine or in the body and blood. The Bible says the unworthy sin against the body and blood of
Christ, not Christ Himself.

Categories: Lutheranism

Disappearing Tattoo Ink

April 27th, 2006 Comments off

Tattoo
Perhaps there is hope after all for those who permanently inscribe somebody or something on to their skin. Now it seems that there is soon to be available a tattoo ink much easier to remove. This is apparently being received as high-heresy among body art Old Believers.

Categories: Current Affairs

You Too Can Right Like a Blogger

April 27th, 2006 1 comment

I confess that I often write these blurbs and notes in haste and so errors creep in. This column was both amusing and poignant. Here is the text:

You Too Can Right Like a Blogger

The Luddite
The Luddite

Sitting
around the cafe the other day, pondering the many ways in which
technology has contrived to screw up my otherwise placid existence, the
talk of my table mates turned to the craft (or is it the art?) of
writing.

"There’s a case to be made that the internet has actually helped
improve the quality of writing in general," said, well, we’ll call him
"Topsy." I leaned in close to see if any alcohol was present on Topsy’s
breath. Detecting nothing beyond the usual halitosis, I surmised that
he was being serious.

"Make the case," I said.

Topsy’s line of reasoning, as best I could follow (for nothing is
ever simple in Topsy’s world), is that the easy access and limitless
nature of the web allow you to expose yourself to tons of writing, both
good and bad. Presumably, the average educated swine will gravitate
toward the good writing and, as a result, improve his own skills as he
increases his knowledge. I expressed skepticism.

"Because our chief job in life is pattern recognition," Topsy said,
pressing his point, "and the chief job of the internet, through
googling, is pattern recognition, what we do by living on the internet
is discriminate between good and bad writing. Bad writing is, by its
genes, something that doesn’t convey information, whether artful or
factual.

"The question is, are there enough of ‘us’ out there (I presume he
was referring to the aforementioned educated swine), through this
passive-aggressive process, to make any difference at all in this
overpopulated world?"

I looked longingly at the bottle of Chianti behind the counter, but
resisted the urge. It’s hard enough staying with Topsy’s train of
thought while nursing a latte. I was left to wonder, though. If he’s
right — if only a relative few in our post-literate society can tell
good writing from bad, whether it’s online, in print or scratched in
the mud with a stick — then what’s the point?

As a mere stripling, I was advised that if I hoped to become a good
writer, I should write every day. More than that, I should read good
writing every day. This can be accomplished on the internet as easily
as it can by reading a book or magazine. But if you’re the sort who
prefers People to The New Yorker, well, again, what’s the point?

So my riposte to Topsy was, while the internet may be a nifty
vehicle for delivering one’s polished prose and penetrating insights to
an impatiently waiting world, it can’t help you become a better writer
if you, pardon my French, suck.

Moreover, the internet leads to all sorts of unsavory writing
practices, like blogging. You know, the journal of the 21st century.

Keeping a diary or journal ("journaling" they now call it, thanks to
the modern world’s habit of turning perfectly good nouns into verbs)
was common among the literate before television came along and hooked
us up to the communal drool bucket.

A journal exists for its author to reflect on, well, anything. A
fading love, political turmoil, a spat with a friend, the weather in
Buffalo, New York, on June 10, 1946. The writer is free to express the
most intimate thoughts, because the nature of keeping a journal is to
keep it private.

Occasionally, if the journal belongs to a writer or an artist or a
statesman, the writing is so compelling that it finds its way into
print after the author dies. In the best of those, we are invited into
the mind behind the creative process and we emerge with a deeper
understanding of a masterwork, say, or the thinking behind a crucial
political decision.

Most journals go unread, though, and that’s the way it should be.
The contents were only intended for the writer’s eyes, after all.

A lot of people will tell you that blogging is merely journaling
online. It is not. Blogging is not private, but very public. And very
few blogs involve the kind of introspection that characterizes a
serious journal. Most blogging is sheer exhibitionism, either the
self-absorbed ramblings of an individual blogger or the corporate site
that exists for the sole purpose of making money. (If anyone sees a
disturbing parallel between blogging and column writing, kindly keep it
to yourself.)

This doesn’t mean blogs have to be badly written. It just means that most are.

But let’s be fair and balanced, like Fox News. Of the 27 million or
so "daily diaries" floating like space junk in the blogosphere, there
are a handful that aren’t bad. Some are well written and insightful. But understand that we’re talking about a precious few needles in a mighty big haystack.

Were Truman Capote alive today he might be moved to say, "That’s not writing. That’s blogging."

- – -

Tony Long, copy chief at Wired News, cries plaintively, "Can’t anybody out there diagram a sentence anymore?"

Categories: Blogging

News Flash: Rapper Held on Charges of Causing Public Row in Airport

April 27th, 2006 Comments off

This kind of thing happens so rarely … a hip-hop/rap star arrested for cauing a public disturbance, if not a public death. This time it is Snoop Dogg.

Categories: Uncategorized

Johann Walther: Father of Lutheran Church Music

April 26th, 2006 3 comments

Johann Walther (1495-1570) is often referred to as the father of
Lutheran Church music. It was Walther who laid the foundation upon
which composers of later generations built the traditions of
Lutheran music. A direct kinship exists between the music of later
composers and that of Walther. This applies not only to the style,
but also to the spirit of their music. A careful study of the
compositions of these composers reveals the fact that their music
is usually spiritual, rather than aesthetic. The music of these men
was deeply religious. They frequently sought merely to present, not
to interpret, the Evangelical message. This impersonal and
objective mode of composition, as well as many other
characteristics found in the music of Lutheran composers may be
traced back directly to Walther.

Walther was the first cantor of the Evangelical Church. The
cantorates of Germany played a most important part in the early
development of Lutheran music. Walther’s office of cantor, and the
influence that he exerted through this office was tremendous in
scope and effect. Walther was also the first German composer to
write a Passion. The importance of this accomplishment can
easily be realized when one considers that men like Heinrich
Schütz and Johann Sebastian Bach put their best efforts into
their Passion settings.

Many people today think of Walther primarily as a composer of
chorale melodies. Although various chorales have been attributed to
him, it is doubtful that he composed any chorales at all. Current
musicological research has not unearthed a single hymn tune which
may with certainty be ascribed to Johann Walther. In his own day,
Walther was regarded as a distinguished musician. Walther has been
regarded as a composer of hymn tunes, because some have erroneously
concluded that he had written at least several of the thirty-six
new hymn tunes which appeared in the various editions of his
Geistliches Gesangbuchlein
published between the years 1524 and
1551.

However, modern scholars believe that he edited and arranged
hymns of Reformation and pre-Reformation times as "chorale motets"
so that they could be used in the Evangelical Mass. These
arrangements were prepared for choirs, not for the congregation.
His Geistliches Gesangbuchlein is not a Choralbuch,
as some believe, but it is a collection of "chorale motets"
arranged for choirs. Walther arranged chorales as other
contrapuntal composers of his time and earlier days had arranged
Gregorian chants. For this reason, Walther must be regarded, not
only as an editor and arranger, but also as a gifted composer of
the Evangelical Church.

Johann Walther was born in the year 1496 in Kahla, a village
near Jena, Germany. His father, whose name likewise was Johann
Walther, was a prosperous peasant who enjoyed a good reputation in
his community. Many of Walther’s relatives, from his
father’s as well as from his mother’s side, were
peasants, and one cannot help but note that, while many of the more
eminent men of the Renaissance were sons of prosperous businessmen,
the leaders of the Reformation were largely the sons of peasants.
George Rhau, a prominent musician, editor, and publisher of the
early Lutheran Church, was the son of a peasant; and Luther once
boasted: "My father, grandfather, and all other ancestors were
genuine peasants." Although we know that Walther attended the
school in Kahla in his early youth, we know very little concerning
his early life. Neither is it known where he received his musical
education. Through the influence of Conrad Rupsch, Walther became
a member of the Hofkapelle of Frederick the Wise in 1517,
the year in which Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-Five Theses
to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.

Frederick the Wise had organized this Hofkapelle c.1490
and had modeled it after the foremost Hofkapellen of Europe,
particularly that of Emperor Maximilian, which was the most famous
of that period. In order to maintain the highest standards
possible, Frederick had engaged such men as Adam von Fulda
(1446–1506) and Heinrich Isaac (1450–1517) for his
organization. The Elector did not hesitate to expend large sums of
money in order to maintain a first-class Hofkapelle, and the
group presented compositions by such masters as Arcadelt, Willaert,
Morales, Josquin Des Préz, Okeghem, Obrecht, and others.
Through the influence of Frederick the Wise, Martin Luther, and
Johann Walther, the members of the early Lutheran Church were
exposed to the very best church music available. Rupsch had been
connected with the Hofkapelle before Walther; in 1524 he
accompanied Walther to Wittenberg in order to help Luther prepare
his Deutsche Messe. Some believe that Walther received much
of his musical training from Rupsch. As a member of the
Hofkapelle
, of which Conrad Rupsch was the musical director,
Walther was a bass singer.

In the later years of Elector Frederick’s life, Conrad Rupsch
sympathized and sided in with the iconoclasts, Thomas Muenzer
and Carlstadt. For this reason, as well as for others,
Frederick’s love for his Hofkapelle waned to the point
of indifference, and he began to neglect the organization which he
at one time had loved most ardently. However, his brother John the
Steadfast and his nephew Frederick then took it upon themselves to
look after its welfare.

By 1524, Walther had established quite an excellent reputation.
Not only was he a bass in the Hofkapelle, but he was also
the official composer of Frederick’s Kantorei, having
been elected to this office to succeed Adam Rener. During the 16th
and 17th centuries, a composer at a court was second in rank to the
musical director (Kapellmeister). Besides composing music
for the Hofkapelle, it was the duty of the composer to
assist the Kapellmeister in arranging the music, to copy the
music for the choir, and, if he did not copy the music himself, to
see to it that well-qualified boys connected with the
Hofkapelle
would copy it.

In 1524, Walther published his famous Geistliches
Gesangbuchlein
in Wittenberg. During this same year, four
hymnals appeared among the Lutherans. The first of these was
undoubtedly the Achtliederbuch, published by Jobst Gutknecht
in Nuremberg. This was followed by two Enchiridia of Erfurt,
edited very likely by Johann Eberlin of Guensberg. Walther’s
Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn, which was published late in the
summer, was quite independent of its three predecessors. It was the
first collection to appear in Lutheran circles for which the music
was selected and arranged systematically. It was edited with the
cooperation of Luther, who wrote the Foreword. The book served as a
model for practically all subsequent collections of music prepared
for the Evangelical Church of that era. It contained thirty-eight
settings of thirty German hymns. Twenty-three of the hymns were by
Martin Luther. In addition, there were also settings of five Latin
hymns. The arrangements were for three to five voices with the
tenor singing the cantus firmus. Just as Gregorian music
served as the cantus firmus in the music of the Roman
Catholic Church, so did the chorale serve as the cantus
firmus
in the music of the Evangelical Church. The cantus
firmus
of the Catholic Church was the chant music of its clergy
and choir, but the Lutheran cantus firmus was sung by its
entire membership: clergy, choir, and congregation. This is evident
already in the music prepared by Walther.

Walther’s Geistliches Gesangbuchlein was intended
not only for use in the church service, but also for use in the
home. Here, too, is evidence of the fruitfulness of the doctrine of
the universal priesthood, which made of the Christian home a
sanctuary and a chancel. Luther and Walther tried hard to encourage
the people to sing part-music in their homes, and Luther himself
set a good example in this respect by having much singing of this
kind in his own home. His Christmas chorale "Vom Himmel
hoch"
was written for his family circle, and it likely never
occurred to Luther that this fine hymn would soon find its way into
Lutheran services of worship. Walther’s book experienced five
editions during his life (1524, 1525, 1537, 1544, 1551), each new
edition an improvement over its predecessor.

Walther’s Geistliches Gesangbuchlein impressed
Martin Luther so favorably that he invited Walther, who was then
only twenty-eight years old, to his home in Wittenberg for an
extended and purposeful visit. Conrad Rupsch was likewise invited to
be present. The visit took place at the beginning of October 1524,
and it lasted three weeks. Luther had been working on his German Mass
(Deutsche Messe) for some time and wanted to discuss parts
of the same with these two men.

Realizing the far-reaching consequences this work would have,
Luther wanted to make sure that what he had written was correct and
simple. He derived his German chants from Gregorian sources, as was
to be expected, but he simplified the chants as much as possible,
leaving out practically all ornamentation and giving each syllable
only one note. His syllabic settings had much in common with those
prepared later by John Merbecke (1523–1585) for the Anglican
Church. Luther was unquestionably of the opinion that elaborate
settings of Gregorian chant would not be used by the average
clergyman. Though less artistic and less beautiful than melismatic
chant, the syllabic settings were better suited for use in churches
which did not employ trained musicians. Luther wished to discuss
particularly his settings of the Sanctus and the Words of
Institution
with Walther and Rupsch. He sang for them the
settings he had arranged and then asked the two experts to express
their misgivings or offer improvements. Walther was asked to take a
copy of these settings to Torgau that he might examine them more
closely at home and also to prepare a copy for Elector Frederick
for his approval. During the three weeks’ visit in
Wittenberg, Luther, Walther, and Rupsch devoted much time to
discussions of the characteristics of the Medieval Modes, chorales,
and music in general. Luther also submitted some of his chorale
tunes for improvement. The great Reformer clearly had high regard
for Johann Walther’s musical expertise.

Great changes occurred in Wittenberg c.1525. Bugenhagen and
Jonas, after seeking the advice of Luther, introduced many changes
in the Mass. Luther’s Deutsche Messe, it must be
remembered, did not appear until 1526. Luther had prepared a
special Christmas liturgy in 1524, and in the fall of 1525 another
new liturgy was introduced. The liturgy of 1524 called for the use
of German hymns which Luther had recommended. Latin hymns were
likewise used. Introducing the singing of hymns into the Masse was
in itself already a departure from the regular liturgical practice
of the Roman Catholic Church, which left no room and made no
provisions for congregational singing in the Mass.

Unfortunately, the Hofkapelle at Torgau and the choir of
the Castle Church in Wittenberg suffered neglect at this time. The
Elector may have been so preoccupied with certain heavy duties
imposed on him by the Reformation itself that he neglected the arts
in order to advance the Evangelical cause. Luther was hardly to be
blamed for the eventual disintegration of the Hofkapelle and
of the choir of the Castle Church, for he later expressed his
regrets over the fact that the musical standards were not
sufficiently high in Wittenberg.

In the midst of all these changes and activities, on May 5,
1525, Elector Frederick the Wise died. His brother, John the
Steadfast, took his place. John almost immediately disbanded the
Hofkapelle at Torgau and the choir of the Castle Church in
Wittenberg. It is possible that he had been influenced by the
iconoclasts, Muenzer and Carlstadt. He may have thought that
worshiping God through music was distinctly Roman Catholic and that
it was the duty of the Church only to preach the Gospel. Some
iconoclasts were of this opinion. Elector John did say that he
regarded the expenses involved for the upkeep of a Hofkapelle
as a sheer waste of money and that he believed the
money could be used to better advantage. A precedent had been
established by Charles V, who had disbanded the famous
Hofkapelle
of Emperor Maximilian in 1519, shortly after the
death of Maximilian. Many members of this internationally famous
organization, including Ludwig Senfl, were thus deprived of their
livelihood and only source of income. However, while in Augsburg in
1520, Senfl received a gift of fifty Gulden from Emperor Charles
V.

After Elector John had disbanded the Torgauer Hofkapelle,
Walther turned to Luther and Melanchthon for help. These two men,
together with Georg Spalatin, appealed to the Elector on behalf of
those who had so promptly been dismissed, particularly on behalf of
Johann Walther. In their letter to the Elector, Luther and
Melanchthon pointed out that the Church needed composers as well as
music, that it was unwise to stop the noble and effective efforts
of men who had trained themselves for, and were devoting their
lives to the advancement of good spiritual music. By thwarting the
efforts of such men, vulgar and cheap music would be permitted to
hold full sway in the lives of the people. This letter was written
on June 20. Two days later the Elector sent a reply to Luther which
showed that he was not to be persuaded very easily. The Elector
insisted not only that maintaining such a group of musicians was
waste of money, but he likewise stated that these musicians wasted
a great deal of time and developed the habit of loafing.

In the very midst of all these difficulties, on June 26, 1526,
Johann Walther married Anna Hesse (1500–1571), the daughter
of Hans Hesse (d.1517), who had been the blacksmith of Elector
Frederick the Wise. Since it seemed rather hopeless to change the
mind of Elector John, Walther offered his services to Duke Albrecht
of Brandenburg, but the unexpected happened. Elector John, on
December 8, 1527, granted Walther a subsidy of twenty-five Gulden,
which he was to receive annually until the end of his life, "since
this man Walther is hardly fit for any other type of work." Other
worthy members of the Hofkapelle were likewise granted a
subsidy, while those who were able to do other work were assigned
to appropriate positions.

In the 14th and 15th Centuries, certain guilds prospered in
Germany which were known as Kalenden. This name was chosen
because the members met regularly on the first day of each month
for the purpose of conducting memorial services in honor of their
departed members. These Kalenden were very popular among the
people, for by joining them the people were assured of elaborate
wedding and funeral services and ceremonies. Kalenden played
a very important part in the musical developments of Germany. They
cultivated and encouraged the use of good church music and helped
develop high musical standards. Frederick the Wise and his brother
John the Steadfast helped support Kalenden, particularly the
one in Torgau. Just as he was about to make a journey to the Holy
Land, Frederick organized a Kapelle for the chapel of St.
Martin at Hartenfels Castle in Torgau. This Kapelle
consisted of four priests, ten choristers, and an organist. While
this organization was dissolved through the decision of John the
Steadfast, two other similar institutions continued to exist, one
under the patronage of the city of Torgau, the other under the
patronage of private individuals. Both of the existing institutions
served the newly built church and school of Torgau, and part of the
expense was borne by the Kalenden of Torgau, into whose
treasury Elector John the Steadfast put the sum of one hundred
Gulden each year. The Kalenden of Torgau saved the situation
for their city and prevented the dissolution of the
Hofkapelle
from causing them the loss of their musical
heritage.

The change made in Torgau proved to be of the utmost importance
in the development of Lutheran church music, and the decision made
by John the Steadfast abrogated the existence of an organization
which served the court (the Hofkapelle) and unwittingly
brought into existence an institution which served the Church,
namely the Kantorei. Torgau thus became the first city of
Germany to establish a cantorate. The Kantoreien helped put
an end to the existence of the Kalenden, many of which had
become thoroughly corrupt and worldly. The Kantoreien soon
became a power which gave real impetus to the advancement of
Lutheran music, since they were invariably connected not only with
a church, but also with a school. They were able to present music
on a much higher scale than any other institution of the Church.
The members of these choirs were available for as many rehearsals
as the cantor would choose to conduct, and the artistry of such
groups, such as the Thomanerchor in Leipzig and the
Kreuzchor
in Dresden.

The school with which the first cantorate of Germany was linked
was the municipally controlled Latin School (Lateinschule)
of Torgau. This school became famous largely through the influence
of M. Petrus Plateanus of Zwickau, who revolutionized the entire
school system of Saxony during the second quarter of the 16th
Century. Plateanus was well acquainted with the fine system used in
the schools of the Netherlands at that time, and he applied many
same policies and practices in the schools of Saxony. The school at
Zwickau shared the fame of the Torgau school, and both institutions
emphasized the study of the humanities from the Evangelical point
of view.

In 1524, Luther had written his famous tract To the
Councilmen of All Cities in German Lands, that They Erect and
Maintain Christian Schools
. In this tract, Luther stressed also
the importance of music and said: "I speak for myself; if I had
children and found it within my power to do so, I would insist that
they study not only languages and history, but also learn to sing
and become acquainted with music and the entire field of
mathematics." On another occasion he said: "We must of necessity
retain the study of music in our schools. A teacher must be able to
sing, otherwise I will not look at him." The tract to the
councilmen exerted a great influence on the German people and on
shaping certain educational policies.

When the people of Torgau, having undoubtedly come under the
influence of Luther’s tract, established a cantorate in their
city, they immediately called upon Johann Walther to be their
Kantor
. Walther gladly accepted the offer, since he had lived
and worked in Torgau previously, while assisting Conrad Rupsch as
composer of the Hofkapelle;. He evidently had enjoyed his
work there and was happy to return. The people of Torgau had
likewise learned to know and appreciate Walther, and the very fact
that they called on him to be their cantor demonstrates their
esteem for him. When Walther took up his new work at Torgau, he was
only the municipal cantor. In 1534, however, the city council, in
order to find a way to increase his salary, appointed Walther also
as cantor of the Lateinschule. In this capacity he taught,
not only music, but also religion and Latin. The school was at that
time attended by one hundred and seventy boys. Walther established
himself quite well in Torgau, purchased a house at the price of 154
Gulden in the year 1532, and thus acquired the rights of
citizenship. He now quite proudly referred to himself as "Citizen
of Torgau and Cantor of its Kantorei."

The enrollment of the Torgauer Lateinschule grew
considerably after Walther became a member of its faculty. In 1545,
it became necessary to restrict the size of the student body to
four hundred. The standards in music advanced rapidly, and Walther
was a highly respected musician, teacher, and administrator. He was
eventually relieved of all other responsibilities at the school and
devoted his full time to teaching music and to music
administration. It was Walther’s duty to supply music for
three churches, for the castle chapel, and for the two main
churches in Torgau. Provisions were enacted that others take his
place when he would be incapacitated by illness or by old age.

Shortly after Johann Walther began his activities in Torgau as
cantor, John the Steadfast died (1532). His place was taken by
Elector John Frederick, who served as Elector of Saxony for ten
years. John the Steadfast has been called "the last knight of
Saxony." His successors did not inherit the greatness of their
eminent predecessors. It was partly for this reason that the
followers of Martin Luther now encountered difficulties which had
been unknown to them before the death of John the Steadfast.

Luther was aware that Walther was accomplishing great things in
Torgau. After he had held visitation of the churches in Torgau in
1534, he could not but express his joy over the fact "that God
Almighty had blessed this city of Torgau above many others with
fine music and an excellent Kantorei." Some claim that
Walther’s appointment to the cantorate at the Latin School
was achieved through a suggestion made to this effect by Luther. In
a letter addressed to the Elector of Saxony in 1541, Luther
lamented the fact that Wittenberg presented and offered nothing
worthwhile in the field of music. Luther wrote at the time: "We
have at present great need for a musician in Wittenberg. For a time
we were supplied from the papacy. The time has now arrived that we
educate our own musicians; we are in need of such an educator (in
Wittenberg)."

Although scholars today agree that Martin Luther possessed a
sufficient musical talent and training to compose, not only simple
hymns, but also excellent chants and other music, Luther never
attempted to offer courses in church music. His letter of 1541,
addressed to the Elector, shows conclusively that he was of the
opinion that courses in church music should be offered by musicians
who have been trained for such work. Luther was sufficiently aware
of the importance of music in life to send his son Hans to the
Torgauer Lateinschule
in 1542 that he might learn music there
among the other subject. Hans studied music under the supervision
of Johann Walther, and the following words, written to Markus
Crodel, superintendent of the Torgau School, in a letter dated
August 26, 1542, are significant: "Farewell in the Lord, wish
Johann Walther well for me and ask him to provide my son with
instruction in music. I indeed must develop theologians, but I
desire that also grammarians and musicians be trained among our
people." Luther’s interest in the school at Torgau was based,
not only on its musical accomplishments, but above all on the fact
that it was fortifying and establishing its students in their
Christian faith. While academic subjects and cultural courses were
offered, the primary purpose of the school was to make real
Christian men of these boys. Music was regarded as a worthy and
useful means for accomplishing this end. Walther had many
opportunities to strengthen his pupils in their Christianity, for
he was known to have taken his religion very seriously.

Walther’s duties as cantor of the municipal
Kantorei
of Torgau, however, were more comprehensive than those
at the Latin School. The civic group stressed the social values
which may be gained from the cultivation of music, as may be seen
from the Sundry Articles Prepared for the City Council of
Torgau
of March 22, 1534. A study of the personnel of the group
reveals how its musical activities brought together people of
various stations of life. In the Kantorei were clergymen,
teachers (including Markus Crodel, superintendent of the
Lateinschule
), merchants, artists, and artisans. When members
of the group were in need, they were given aid. When they entered
the estate of holy matrimony or when they died, music was furnished
for the occasion. These customs undoubtedly reflect the influence
of the Kalenden.

October 5, 1544, was a day long to be remembered by the people
of Torgau. On that day the new chapel of Hartenfels Castle was
dedicated. It was the first church building erected by Lutherans.
For this noteworthy occasion Luther himself preached the sermon.
Walther composed a seven-part motet for the occasion, which was
sung by members of the Torgau Kantorei. The composition was
a motet of homage, dedicated to Luther, Melanchthon, and Elector
John Frederick the Magnanimous. Georg Rhau of Wittenberg published
this motet, which is very much like one written by Josquin Des
Préz.

The musical repertoire of the municipal Kantorei at
Torgau naturally freatured Walther’s Geistliches
Gesangbuechlein
quite prominently. Four editions of this famous
collection appeared before Walther left Torgau for Dresden. The
first edition contained thirty-eight German and Latin compositions.
As new editions came out, the proportion of Latin compositions
grew; the fifth edition contained seventy-eight German and
forty-seven Latin compositions. The repertoire included also
Walther’s Passion According to St. Matthew, the first
German Passion ever written. Walther’s Luther-Codex of
1545, a collection (copied by hand) of twenty-four German and one
hundred fifteen Latin compositions, was also used. This interesting
collection included compositions by Josquin Des Préz, Adam
Rener, Johannes Prioris, Pierre de la Rue, Antoine de Fevin, Ludwig
Senfl, and many others. The well-known Gothaer Cantional of
1545, a collection of forty-two German and sixty-nine Latin
compositions, a Magnificat collection of 1557, and a printed
edition of Christlich Kinderlied D. Martini Lutheri: Erhalt uns,
Herr,
of 1566 with eighteen German and three Latin compositions
were likewise used by the Torgauer Kantorei. In 1540 Georg
Rhau dedicated a collection of ten four-part masses to the Torgau
Kantorei. It is not surprising that this collection was in
the library. Rhau’s large collection, bearing the title
Neue geistliche Gesaenge
fuer die gemeinen Schulen
(Wittenberg, 1544), was also used at Torgau. The repertoire,
therefore, consisted not only of compositions written in
Walther’s conservative style, but also of compositions of a
freer type as, for example, those written by Des Préz,
Senfl, and others of the Netherlander School.

The records of the Kantorei of the Lateinschule
reveal that some outstanding men studied there under the tutelage
of Walther. Among these we find the fathers of Leonhard Schroerer
and Michael Praetorius, Martin Luther’s son Hans, and Georg
Otto, the teacher of Heinrich Schütz. Some years later, as
Landgrave Maurice of Hesse tried to persuade Heinrich Schütz
to come to his court to serve as Kapellmeister, he stated
that a musician, in order to have a good rating, almost had to be a
product of the Torgau School. Although Schütz himself had not
lived and studied in Torgau, the very fact that his teacher had
been one of its products was regarded as sufficient evidence of the
adequacy of Schütz’s training. The school at Torgau and
also the municipal Kantorei of this city were famous
throughout Germany, and its students were recruited from many parts
of the nation.

After Walther had spent years of hard work and dedication
establishing high standards in Torgau, difficulties set in which
made life and work very difficult for him there. They arose
particularly after 1546, the year of Luther’s death. Walther
and Luther had been very good friends, and Walther had learned to
lean quite heavily on Luther. Furthermore, strife came into the
Lutheran Church when the liberal element within the Church, under
the leadership of Melanchthon, gained control of the University of
Wittenberg, and the conservative element chose to retreat to the
University of Jena. The Council of Trent, which began to assemble
in 1545, refused to admit that the Roman Catholic Church had erred
and thus made reconciliation with the Lutherans impossible. Had not
the spirit of Lutheran faith and strong conviction already entered
into the lives of the common people, the Reformation might have
been lost at this time.

Political conditions also developed which proved to be harmful
to the Lutheran cause. In 1547, Emperor Charles V carried out the
wish of the Pope to put down "the Lutheran heretics" in Germany.
Wars broke out between the Roman Catholics and the Lutherans, who
were united in the Smalcald League. Maurice, the Duke of Saxony,
betrayed the Lutherans politically. He declared himself for Charles
V, against the Evangelicals, and he took possession of Electoral
Saxony, which rightfully belonged to his cousin John Frederick. In
the spring of 1547, Emperor Charles V defeated John Frederick at
Muehlberg and took him prisoner. Charles demonstrated his hatred
for Lutheranism by appointing the vicious Duke of Alba as president
of the court which tried John Frederick and condemned him to death.
The princes of Germany protested so violently against this sentence
that it was never carried out, but John Frederick was compelled to
give his treacherous cousin Maurice the title of Elector and all
his territory. John Frederick steadfastly refused to subscribe to
the decrees of the Council of Trent and remained firm in his
Lutheran faith during his five years of imprisonment which
followed.

Walther had followed these developments closely and had also,
together with other citizens of Torgau, lent money to Elector John
Frederick in order to help the Lutheran cause. However, now that
the whole matter had taken such an unfortunate turn, Walther became
very much discouraged and was anxious to leave Torgau.
Nevertheless, he remained and conducted himself as a dutiful and
obedient citizen.

Largely through the influence of Charles V, much Dutch music was
brought into Saxony following these events. Dutch musicians were
likewise imported. This made it difficult for Walther to perpetuate
some of the standards he had worked so hard to establish. Many of
these Dutch musicians did not fit into Walther’s surroundings
and caused much dissension in the circles into which they
entered.

Another serious difficulty presented itself. A highly talented
musician by the name of Adrian Petit Coclicus, a former pupil of
Josquin Des Préz, sought the position as professor of music
at the University of Wittenberg. His occupying this chair would
naturally have robbed Walther of much hard-earned prestige in
Saxony. Coclicus, who had become a Protestant, wrote a Song of
Homage,
which he dedicated to the treacherous Elector Maurice,
hoping thereby to gain his good will. Coclicus, however, had a bad
reputation, and the Elector was not able to grant him his wish
despite the many recommendations Coclicus had brought with him.

Walther’s successor in Torgau, Michael Vogt, who had been
a pupil of Coclicus, went to Walther for further instruction in
music after discontinuing his work with Coclicus. This must have
afforded Walther some satisfaction. It was Michael Vogt who
published a collection of five and six-part Masses written by such
masters as Lupus Hellingk and Matthaeus Le Maistre, which was used
extensively in Torgau after the departure of Walther. The influence
exerted by such musicians as Le Maistre, Des Prez, and Hellingk was
wholesome for the music of Saxony, for it infused into Saxon music
a vitality which was sadly lacking in the conservative music of
Walther. Had the Netherlander composers not introduced these
refreshing elements, it is doubtful whether Saxon music written in
the first half of the Sixteenth Century would have survived. As it
was, it became the foundation for the music of Michael Praetorius,
Hans Leo Hassler, Johann Sebastian Bach, and others.

Shortly after Maurice had taken over the position of Elector of
Saxony, he decided to establish his residence in Dresden. He
likewise decided to have a Hofkapelle for his court. While
at the court in Torgau from 1537 to 1539, he had become well
acquainted with the activities and abilities of Walther. Having
perhaps heard that a change of residence, activity, and environment
would do Walther much good, Elector Maurice in 1548 decided to ask
Walther to organize a Hofkapelle for him in Dresden.
Melanchthon had encouraged Maurice to offer this office to Walther,
who later accepted and again became a court musician.

A call soon went out to various parts of Germany, urging capable
men and boys to become candidates for membership in the Dresden
Hofkapelle.
The invitation was sent also to the students at the
Universities of Leipzig and Wittenberg. It is known that the appeal
was read in the Latin language to the students at the University of
Wittenberg on the 19th of August by Caspar Cruciger, Rector of the
University. A large number of candidates applied; nineteen were
finally chosen as probationers for a period of six months. Ten of
these nineteen singers were adults; nine were boys (sopranos,
descanters). One of the adult members of the Kapelle, who
possessed the necessary training and education, was given the
office of preceptor for the nine boys in order that their education
might not be neglected. The members of the Hofkapelle were
required to pledge obedience, reverence, Christian decorum, and
attendance at all regular and special rehearsals. Two boys were
appointed periodically to read portions from the German and Latin
editions of the Bible in the chapel exercises conducted especially
for the young boys.

Rehearsals lasting an hour were held each day, and Walther was
granted the privilege of having as many rehearsals as he chose. The
members of the Hofkapelle were garbed in black vestments and
received one new court garment each year. On the right sleeve of
each vestment, near the shoulder, the motto of Saxony was stitched
with golden threads. This consisted in the words Verbum Dei
Manet in Aeternum
(The Word of the Lord endureth forever). On
the vestments the motto was abbreviated: VDMIA. The
Kapellmeister
as well as the organist received two garments
each year. The boys lived in the home of the Kapellmeister,
who was responsible for their welfare, fed them, and, among other
things, gave each of the boys a container filled with beer each
night. This was the Schlaftrunk, which was to help the boys
fall asleep. The Kapellmeister and the instructor of the
boys each received an annual salary of forty Gulden. The salary of
the organist was thirty Gulden, and each of the adult singers
received twenty-four Gulden. They, too, were granted a portion of
beer each night. The Kapellmeister and the instructor,
besides receiving daily a jug filled with beer, also received daily
a container filled with wine from the cellar of the Elector.
Stipulated amounts were granted the Kapellmeister for the
sustenance of the boys he housed and fed in his home, and the
Kapellmeister
rendered a detailed account of the needs of the
boys with regard to clothing, textbooks, paper, ink, soap, and the
like. Having such close contact with their superiors naturally left
its impression on these boys and also advanced them musically.
According to all indications, conditions at Dresden were almost
ideal for Walther during his service under Elector Maurice. The
work was well regulated and obviously the Elector had great
confidence in his chief musician.

Elector Maurice died in the year 1553, and his brother August
became his successor. Since the new Elector wanted to enlarge his
Hofkapelle, Walther, who was now growing old, believed it
would be better to transfer the office of cantor to someone younger
than himself, though he had been an incumbent of this office for
only six years. Asking at the same time for a pension, Walther
resigned on August 7, 1554. His successor was Matthaeus Le Maistre,
a famous and very capable Flemish musician of that period, whose
services the Elector procured through an agent at the rather high
salary of 240 Gulden per year. Walther was granted a pension of
sixty Gulden per year, an increase of fifty per cent over the
salary he had received.

Le Maistre abandoned his Catholic faith shortly after his
arrival in Dresden and became a Lutheran. He did not throw
overboard the customs and traditions which Walther had established
at the court of Maurice. Neither did Le Maistre do violence to the
type of music Walther had sought to foster; on the contrary, he was
very conservative and evidently respected Walther highly. He even
fostered the style Walther had used and applied many of its
characteristics to his own compositions. Thus we find that he
usually used a cantus firmus in his compositions. He often
doubled this cantus firmus by having two voices sing it
canonically. But Le Maistre was not a mere imitator; he often went
several steps farther than Johann Walther had gone. He was a
typical Flemish master and quite naturally applied much of what he
had learned from other Netherlander composers. There is,
consequently, more complexity in his compositions than in the music
of Walther. Le Maistre had studied with the famouse composer Claude
Goudimel, and from this training he often assigned his cantus
firmus
to the soprano voice. This practice was later adopted by
Lukas Osiander and practically all later Lutheran composers. Le
Maistre may well be called the "transition composer" between Johann
Walther and Sixt Dietrich on the one hand, and Hans Leo Hassler and
Michael Praetorius on the other.

Although Le Maistre earnestly endeavored to perpetuate the
ideals that Walther had sought to establish at Dresden,
developments took a turn which disappointed Walther. Much foreign
music was introduced at Dresden, foreign musicians were imported
(notably from Italy and the Netherlands), and Le Maistre was soon
forced to realize that a Hofkapellmeister could not work
with the independence which a cantor enjoyed. In much to same way,
several generations later, J.S. Bach was obliged to cater to the
tastes of the Weimar court and prepare for performance much of the
music of Vivaldi and other Italian composers. Elector August
encountered heavy expenses by importing foreign musicians for the
Dresden court. Many remained but a short time, notably among the
boys, who often became homesick and yearned to return to their
homes in Italy and the Netherlands. In addition, Le Maistre
frequently experienced that the voices of some would change shortly
after their arrival in Dresden.

There were also other unexpected difficulties. Some of the Dutch
members of the Hofkapelle were not at all willing to learn
the German language, and it became necessary to exert pressure to
remedy this. Also, a large percentage of the Italians and
Netherlanders were Roman Catholics, and forcing Lutherans and
Catholics to live and work together was bound to cause, not only
heated discussions and dissension, but even serious outbreaks and
trouble, especially in the 16th Century. Under Walther’s
regime, there had been tranquillity and peace, but Le Maistre had a
much more difficult task to perform than did Walther. Arrangements
were made which obligated Le Maistre to house only those boys who
had come from the Netherlands. The others (12) lived with the
preceptor. Arrangements were also made that boys connected with the
Hofkapelle could attend the schools at Schulpforta, Meissen,
or Grimma while their voices were changing, naturally with the
provision that they return to the Hofkapelle at Dresden.
Others, whose class records warranted the privilege, were permitted
to attend either the University of Wittenberg or the University of
Leipzig for a period of two or three years. They were granted a
subsidy of twenty-five Gulden per year, but were obligated to
return to their work at Dresden after they had completed their
studies.

In 1556, forty-seven musicians furnished the music for the Saxon
court. Ten of these were instrumentalists, and the others formed
the choral group. All the instrumentalists were Italians, and the
choral group included also three organists. Among the names of
Italians we find those of Antonio and Angelo Scandello. Antonio
Scandello succeeded Le Maistre as Kapellmeister in 1568. He,
too, became a Lutheran. His compositions show German as well as
Italian leanings. He and Le Maistre are today regarded as Lutheran
composers. Both treated the chorale quite successfully. However,
Scandello’s idiom is more fluent and polyphonic than that of
Le Maistre, many of whose compositions are homophonic in
character.

As soon as Elector August began to make radical changes to
expand the work of his Kapelle, Johann Walther felt quite
out of place in Dresden. He was not the type of person who could
adapt himself readily to radical change. His age may have been
responsible for this. He had harbored the hope of putting music
into the hands of the common people, as he had done while municipal
cantor in Torgau. However, Elector August thought only of his court
and the Hofkapelle. Instead of taking German people into the
Hofkapelle, he imported musicians from Italy and the
Netherlands. Instead of giving music to his people, he reserved it
for himself and his courtiers. This was hardly in keeping with the
aims of Martin Luther and Johann Walther.

Furthermore, the tactics of the Elector brought secular
instrumental music not only into Saxony, but also into the
churches. In itself this was not to be deplored but, unfortunately,
it brought secular music into the Mass as well. Another outcome of
the practices of Elector August was that musicians were no longer
interested in serving the Church; their ambition was to serve at
court, where the remuneration was more gratifying than in the
Church. The foreign musicians who had been imported by the Elector
often had no appreciation for what was appropriate in a church
service, and when called upon to perform in a church, they would
often render music which was unworthy and unsuitable. These
unfortunate developments ran counter to the devout principles of
Walther, whose greatest aim in life had been to serve the Church
and to educate the people. His heart was simply not in the
cultivation of music at the court, though he realized fully what a
fine influence it could and should wield there. Walther clearly did
not fit into the Dresden surroundings any longer.

In 1554 Walther returned to Torgau, where he still owned a home.
Here he hoped to live a calm and peaceful life. But conditions had
changed considerably during the time of his residence in Dresden.
While serving as cantor in Torgau he had won the friendship and
esteem of many people. After John Frederick had lost Saxony and had
been cast into prison, practically all the people who had been at
his court left Torgau and took up residence in Weimar. The Augsburg
Interim and its successor, the Leipzig Interim, had made life
unbearable particularly for Lutheran clergymen in Saxony. Gabriel
Zwilling (Didymus), a pastor in Torgau, and Michael Schulteis, the
father of Michael Praetorius, both intimate friends of Walther,
were removed from office. Here and there individuals remained true
to their Lutheran principles and lived as exules Christi,
exiles of Christ, as they called themselves. Walther associated
with them after his return to Torgau, but nevertheless felt quite
lost. He was asked to write an epitaphical mass in honor of Elector
Maurice, but shirked this duty, perhaps because he had developed
feelings of strong prejudice against Maurice, whom the Lutherans
called "Judas," because he had betrayed them, and whom the
Catholics, too, despised, because he later had been unfaithful to
Charles V in order to regain the favor of the Lutherans. Walther
asked Antonio Scandello to write the Mass. He did, however, write
an epitaph in honor of John Frederick, who had died in 1554, which
he turned over to the sons of "the born prince" together with a
collection of eight Magnificats, one for each of the eight psalm
tones. This collection was published in 1557.

Influences were at work in Torgau to suppress the use of figural
art music altogether. Certain people, particularly a certain Caspar
Heydenreich, did not approve of four and five-part music, claiming
that it was "Roman Catholic" in its very makeup. They maintained at
the same time that only unison music is characteristically
Lutheran. The city council was rather worried about this
development, but Walther fought it openly, quoting Luther as much
as possible, for he knew that he could thus squelch these fanatics
most effectively.

In the year 1566 Walther published his last collection of music.
It contained eighteen German and two Latin compositions. The title
was: Doctor Martin Luther’s Christian Hymn for Children,
"Lord, Keep Us Steadfast in Thy Word," Augmented by Several
Beautiful Christian Texts, Latin and German Songs
. The
collection was dedicated to Duke Johann Wilhelm of Saxony.

Walther was now 70 years old (an incredible age for the times).
After his return to Torgau, because of his age and the fact that
his compositions, as well as many of his principles with regard to
church music no longer fit into the existing scene, Walther’s
activities were restricted to the presentation of music in the
chapel of the castle. The Elector took a kindly attitude towards
Walther, knowing that he had contributed much to the development of
music in Saxony. There were many people in Saxony, including many
of his former students, who took a sympathetic attitude toward him.
But Walther’s day was at its end. Michael Praetorius’
Verba des alten Johann Walthers (Words of the Old Johann
Walther) give us reason to believe that Walther must have written
memoirs of his career during his last days. It is believed that he
died in Torgau on March 25, 1570. His grave has not been preserved,
but his gravestone has been found with the following simple
inscription: "Natus 1496, denatus 1570." His wife
died a year later, May 23, 1571. No portrait of Walther is known to
be in existence today. It is thought that Cranach made several of
him and that one of these still existed in the 18th century.

Johann Walther was a pioneer in the real sense of the word.
Luther put music on the lips of all worshipers, and Lutheran
composers, convinced that the text was the main thing, wrote simply
and intelligibly, very often using a well-known chorale as a
cantus firmus in order that the people might hear a familiar
strain in the choral music of the Church. When Johann Walther began
his career as a composer of church music, he approached his work
soberly and wisely. The mere fact that the compositions which he
wrote later in life were not radically different from the
compositions which he wrote when less than thirty years of age,
indicates an early stage of development and maturity which were
well worth preserving and maintaining throughout his life.

Walther adopted the prevailing custom of his day and assigned
the cantus firmus to the tenors (name derived from
"teneo"— to hold
). In his Geistliche Lieder of
1524, we find only two instances in which Walther assigned the
cantus firmus
not to the tenors, but to the sopranos. In the
edition published in 1551, however, the cantus firmus is
transferred to the upper voice no less than fifteen times. This
proves that Walther did not hesitate to change his compositional
technique when he realized that the change would effect an
improvement. Yet, as a rule, composers of that period assigned the
cantus firmus to the tenor. While the tenors sang the
cantus firmus
(chorale), the other voices may have sung a vowel
sound, and not the text. Musicologists today believe it likely that
only the cantus firmus of these compositions was sung, while
the other parts were played by various instrumentalists.

Walther’s chorale compositions may be divided into two
distinct groups. As an example of the first group, in Walther’s
setting of "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland," there is from the
outset a distinct independence of the outer voices. These open the
composition with imitation, which is not carried out far and consistently
enough to establish any definite form. Walther often uses imitation in
this manner at the beginning of his works. The cantus firmus,
of course, is the pivot of the entire composition, and everything is
built around it. However, it is assigned to the altos and the tenors
in the form of a two-voice canon. The purpose of this is to give to
the cantus firmus more prominence and greater strength. After
the cantus firmus has once made its entry, the outer voices
progress with perfect freedom, making no attempt to lend support to
the cantus firmus. In the twenty-second measure a new procedure
sets in: the cantus firmus becomes melismatic and the outer voices
begin to imitate the cantus firmus. The contrast between the
outer voices and the descant is lifted, and the voices begin to
coordinate. This was not often done by Walther, but we see here
the influence of such composers as Finck, Isaac, and Hofhaimer, all
members of the Renaissance school. We notice likewise the influence of
the Netherland school, which insisted on such coordination and which also
made frequent use of imitation in its compositions for the purpose
of establishing unity.

Compositions of this type were written by Johann Walther already
before 1524. About half of the compositions in his Geistliches
Gesangbuechlein
of 1524 are of this type, though in no more
than four the cantus firmus is doubled and sung canonically,
and in only two compositions do we find the cantus firmus in
the upper voice. In eighteen compositions the chorale is presented
in its simple original form, while in the remaining twenty-two
chorale motets of the collection the chorale melody appears in a
melismatically altered form.

The second type of chorale composition written by Walter
is quite different from the first. This type is exemplified in his
arrangement of the chorale "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir."
Here, too, Walther adopted a style which had been developed already by others,
notably by Isaac, Stoltzer, Finck, and Hofhaimer. The cantus
firmus
is very plain and to the point, totally devoid of
melismatic figuration or other ornamental effects. The tenors carry
the cantus firmus and in the entire composition the cantus firmus
is the pivot. In fact, in this type of composition the cantus firmus
draws the other voice parts to itself with "centripetal force." The outer
voices are not free and do not move about with perfect abandon; the
entire composition is not only homophonic, but also homorhythmical.
The compositions belonging to this group or type are much more
simple and hence also more popular than the compositions belonging
to the first group. Since the outer voices are directly under the
influence of the cantus firmus, they naturally help support
it. Cadences occur regularly at the end of each phrase. The part sung
as descant at times manifests melodic features which show the
influence of the Renaissance composers, but on the whole one feels
that all voices help support the tenors. This type of composition
was developed also by Josquin Des Préz and others.

Walther’s custom of assigning the cantus firmus to
the tenors was followed quite generally until Lukas Osiander
(1534–1604), a theologian, induced the Lutheran composers to
assign the cantus firmus to the sopranos, as had been done
by Goudimel and Bourgeois of the Reformed school. In 1586 Osiander
published his 50 geistliche Lieder und Psalmen in Nuremburg.
These were written in four-part harmony and arranged
homorhythmically. Osiander said in the preface to his collection:
"I know very well that composers usually assign the chorale to the
tenors. However, when one does that, the chorale is not
recognizable among the other voices; for the common man does not
understand or know which hymn or psalm it is which is being sung
and hence cannot sing along. For that reason I have assigned the
chorale to the descanters, that it may be recognized, and that
every layman may be able to sing along."

During the Reformation period, two Passions were written which
enjoyed great popularity in Germany for a period of over two
hundred years. Both were written by Johann Walther; one was based
on the account of Christ’s passion as recorded by the
Evangelist St. Matthew, the other on that by St. John. Walter
composed his "dramatic" or "responsorial" Passions in German. In
earlier musical versions of the Passion story the entire narrative
was a succession of polyphonic motets, but Walter used a monophonic
reciting tone for the Evangelist and dramatis personae, reserving
for the people and the disciples simple fauxbourdon (chordal)
polyphony. Both Passions are believed to have been written between
1525 and 1530, and some are of the opinion that Luther assisted
Walther in writing them. Walther’s St. Matthew Passion
was used in the Thomaskirche in Leipzig until J.S. Bach
replaced it with his own Passion According to St. Matthew in
1729. The change made by Bach almost caused a furor in Leipzig, not
only because Bach’s Passion was radically different
from Walther’s, which was a chant Passion, but also because
the people were disinclined to change established customs.

Walther’s Passions served as models for many Passions
written after his day by Lutheran composers. Luther had always
insisted that music and text must go hand in hand. He insisted that
one should not use a German text with music that had been written
specifically for a Latin text, even if the German text was a
translation of the Latin. Walther bore this in mind when he wrote
his Passions. He first considered his German texts, studied their
structure, then set them to music. Walther used the Passion tone
which had already been used by the Church long before his day, but
modified it so that it could be adapted to his settings. He did not
use the Gospel tone, which had likewise been used before his day.
When composing the music for the Passion account of a certain
Evangelist, Walther retained the exact words of Scripture just as
he found them in Luther’s German translation of the Bible.
Walther upheld tradition and wrote his St. Matthew Passion
for Palm Sunday and his St. John Passion for Good Friday.
When used in the main service of the day, the presentation of the
Passion would take the place of the reading of the Gospel.

Walther seems to have written no secular music. When he
composed, he composed for his church, and since the organ was not
as yet a fully recognized and widely used church instrument, he did
not write music for it. His primary aim was to establish a singing
tradition within the Evangelical Church. As has already been stated,
it is doubtful whether Walther wrote any hymn tunes. However, Walther
is credited with the authorship of about ten hymn texts, of which
several are definitely known to be his. The best known of these are the
two chorales Der Braeut’gam wird bald rufen (Soon will the
Bridegroom Summon) and Herzlich tut mich erfreuen (My Inmost
Heart Rejoiceth). The latter was really a parody on the folk song,
Herzlich tut mich erfreuen die Liebe Sommerzeit.

Luther and Walther combated bad music with good music. They took
secular music and made it sacred, thereby creating a type of
religious verse which the Germans call Kontrafakturen, i.e.,
contrafacted or parodied hymns. To us this seems like a rather
strange procedure, especially when a secular song is converted into
chorale for the season of Lent, but in the days of the Reformation
very little distinction was made between sacred and secular music,
between church life and folk life. The distinction did not really
develop until the Council of Trent passed its momentous decisions
with regard to music, insisting that sharp distinctions be made
between sacred and secular music. The Bohemian Brethren had
followed the same practice which was later adopted by Luther and
Walther. In a letter to Elector Frederick III, they explain their
actions as follows: "Among our hymn tunes are some which were
originally associated with secular texts. Strangers and outsiders
are often offended at this. But our musicians have adopted these
after much deliberation, believing that the common people would
grasp the truth much more quickly when it is associated with
familiar tunes; for this reason we ought not to find fault with
their good intentions."

Luther and Walther were actually almost forced to convert
secular texts into sacred verse. There existed at that time a
scarcity of hymns for the people and for the Church. The Roman
Catholic Church had not concerned itself about giving the people an
opportunity to sing hymns in the celebration of Mass, and the hymns
which were available were few in number. Practically all of these
hymns were written in Latin, and a large percentage was saturated
with distinctively Roman Catholic doctrines. Although Luther
translated and purged many such hymns, their number was relatively
small when one takes into consideration the large number of hymns
which must be at the disposal of a singing Church. Luther and
Walther were thus forced to recast folk songs and convert them into
hymns. Luther insisted that the hymns of the Church be popular
(volkstuemlich) and folk-song-like in character, so he did
not hesitate to convert folk songs into church hymns. It is to be
noted, however, that not only Luther and Walther, but also others
who were interested in providing the Church with hymns, were very
careful in selecting only such texts and tunes as would fit well
into a religious service. Luther thus popularized the singing of
hymns among his followers to such an extent that the Lutheran
Church became known as the "Singing Church."

By using folk-song melodies with sacred texts, some of which
were parodies, Luther and Walther sought not only to put wholesome
music into the hands of the people, but aimed thereby also to
combat vulgar and undesirable music. Had they attempted to do this
with a more artistic type of music, of which they themselves were
very fond, they would, likely, have failed. By giving the common
people simple music which was good, they hoped not only to lead
them away from what was cheap, offensive, and vulgar, but also to
lead them to that higher and more artistic type of music which the
common people were as yet not able to enjoy or comprehend.
Consequently, when Walther wrote his motets, he kept in mind that
the common people were to hear them. He therefore often made them
as simple as possible, using a chorale as cantus firmus; he
knew that such use of familiar tunes would catch the ears of the
laity and thus teach them to appreciate and follow music which was
more involved than a simple folk song. One must not disregard the
fact that Luther and Walther had pedagogical minds. They sought to
teach and thus reform. When one considers the abundant use Bach
made of the chorale in his cantatas, Passions, and organ music, one
cannot help but realize that he had the same purpose in mind. In
this respect, as well as in others, Bach trod the path of Johann
Walther, the father of Lutheran Church music. Walther laid the
foundation; Bach completed the structure.

When we examine Walther’s music, we cannot help perceiving
that to him religious music was important because it had a great
message to proclaim and a sacred duty to perform. Luther at one
time remarked that music is second in importance only because
theology ranks first. Walther went even further and stated that
music is a part of theology. In the preface to his
Lobgedicht,
Walther said: "Music, because of its character, and
because of its own rich inheritance, belongs to sacred theology;
yes, it is so entwined and so sealed up with theology that anyone
who desires, studies, and learns theology, must also take up music
with it, though he may not see, feel, or understand it. For that
reason music is not an art which, as some believe, may be used only
to entice carnal desires, pleasures, and frivolity, just as some
people use all gifts of God for carnal and foolish purposes, but it
is an art which has been given us for the purpose of praising and
glorifying God’s grace and mercy, that through it the spirit
may be made cheerful in God and also that through it man’s
lazy and indolent flesh may be made happy and alert, ready and
willing to praise and serve God."

Walther built a foundation which still stands, and upon which
much of the greatest music of the world stands. To have built such
a foundation means to have built substantially and well, and though
time may have obscured the builder and the very foundation itself,
the foundation still serves its great purpose and retains its
significance. Michael Praetorius expressed this fact when he
referred to Johann Walther as "the most important and most
interesting founder of Lutheran music in the churches of
Germany." Source.

* * *

Motets by Johann Walther ~ PDF Scores
   Allein auf Gottes Wort    * *
   Christ ist erstanden   MIDI
   Christ lag in Todesbanden   MIDI
   Christum wir sollen loben schon    * *
   Ein’ feste Burg ist unser Gott   MIDI
   Gelobet seist du Jesu Christ    * *
   Komm, Gott Schöpfer – (open score)   MIDI
   Komm, Gott Schöpfer, heiliger Geist   MP3
   Komm, heiliger Geist   MIDI
   Nun bitten wir / Komm, heiliger Geist   MIDI
   Vater unser im Himmelreich   MIDI
   Verbum caro factum est!    * *
   Wir glauben all an einen Gott   MIDI
   Wo Gott, der Herr, nicht bei uns hält   MIDI
Categories: Music

Worship: From the Frying Pan Into the Fire

April 25th, 2006 3 comments

It is always interesting to read perspectives on issues that concern me as a Lutheran, written by non-Lutherans. This is a great post pointing out the vapidity of many so-called contemporary hymns. Any congregation that permits these sorts of songs to be song as the main fare of its worship service has automatically put its members on a starvation diet. It is appalling anyone who claims to be a Lutheran is in any way clamoring for this kind of stuff. Here is a great pull quote from the piece:

Returning to Worship by the Book, Carson makes an analogy
between a person who watches a sunset and another person who stands
before the same sunset but becomes fixated on watching himself watch
the sunset. The first person delights in the beauty of Creation, while
the second person can see no further than the act of watching it. In
this way he misses the sunset altogether. What folly it is to miss the
beauty of the sunset by fixating on ourselves. And what a tragedy it is
if we go no further than asking God to touch us or speak to us, but do
not use what He has given us to accomplish that end. We would be better
off not singing at all than engaging in "worship" that unintentionally
focuses on us and commends us for our act of worship.

Link: Challies Dot Com: Worship: From the Frying Pan Into the Fire.

Categories: Uncategorized

The Benefits of the Catechisms

April 25th, 2006 Comments off

An interesting piece from a non-Lutheran on the benefit of catechisms. I shudder when I reflect on the appalling doctrinal ignorance in the church today. No wonder people fall to pieces everytime some new ridiculous fad somes along like: Prayer of Jabez or Purpose Driven Life or…you name it. People are groping for certainty and answers and often all they get is an invitation to turn back to their emotions and feelings and sentiment. Interesting piece this:

Link: Challies Dot Com: The Benefits of the Catechisms.

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60 billion emails a day

April 25th, 2006 Comments off

The e-mail server where I work has software that blocks a ton of spam, thankfully, but e-mail has become for me and everyone where I work the most important form of communication. Email is much more efficient than the telephone, much faster than snail-mail, and allows us to accomplish so much more in the same amount of time. Sure, there are down-sides, but the up-side is incredible. Here is a story on the daily amount of e-mail zinging around the world. Sixty (60) billion!!

Link: 60 billion emails sent daily worldwide: Deutsche Telekom�|�Reuters.com.

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“Christian” Publication for Moms

April 24th, 2006 Comments off

The bloggers at Touchstone assure their readers that this is not a joke. I wish it were.

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